Generational Stereotypes and Ageism

two bearded men back to back, one is a Millennial and the other is a Baby Boomer.

Generational Stereotypes and Ageism

If you’ve ever found yourself sighing at phrases like, “Okay, Boomer,” or pulling out your hair when someone replies to your concerns about money with, “well, just stop spending it on avocado toast and overpriced coffee,” then you’ve already experienced ageism: a pervasive but less acknowledged form of discrimination.


Here, we shed light on ageist beliefs, age discrimination, and generational stereotypes. We’ll explore the origins, manifestations, and impacts of ageism on different age groups, debunk myths about aging, discuss generational stereotypes – especially in the workplace – and differentiate actual value shifts from negative stereotypes.

What Is Ageism?

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), ageism is defined as stereotyping ourselves and others in our thoughts, behaviors, and feelings, based on age. WHO’s Global Report on Ageism states, “ageism arises when age is used to categorize and divide people in ways that lead to harm, disadvantage and injustice and erode solidarity across generations.”

Age related discrimination can manifest in several ways, but it’s generally categorized into three main types: institutional, interpersonal, and internalized ageism.

What is an Ageist?

An ageist is someone who discriminates against people based on their age, such as being too old or too young to do a job. This includes someone expressing generational judgements and name calling towards people based on their age or the era of their childhood.

What are the Three Types of Ageism?

There are three main types of age discrimination:

Institutional Ageism: This refers to policies, practices, and norms that systematically discriminate against individuals based on their age. In the workplace, for example, an organization might favor younger employees for promotions, assuming they’re more energetic or innovative. Alternatively, marketing campaigns often target younger demographics, neglecting older consumers. These practices marginalize certain age groups, reinforcing harmful stereotypes and perpetuating age-based inequality.

Interpersonal Ageism: This type involves ageist attitudes or behaviors between individuals. Examples include patronizing language, exclusion from social activities, or assuming an older person can’t handle technology. Such behavior can lead to feelings of devaluation and alienation, affecting people’s self-esteem and overall well-being.

Internalized Ageism: This type of ageism occurs when individuals internalize negative stereotypes about their own age group, leading to negative self-perceptions and expectations about aging. For example, older adults might start believing they’re less capable or a burden to others, leading to decreased mental and physical health. Similarly, younger individuals may feel inadequate or pressured to prove themselves due to stereotypes about their inexperience or immaturity.

What is an Example of Ageism?

Older adults are often unfairly perceived as incompetent, frail, or out-of-touch, resulting in their exclusion from various social and professional opportunities. This kind of prejudice can also lead to more severe forms of discrimination, such as elder abuse.

On the other hand, younger adults, particularly those from the Millennial and Gen Z cohorts, often encounter ageism in the form of dismissive attitudes toward their abilities and experiences. They may be branded as inexperienced, lazy, or entitled, which can hinder their professional development and lead to unequal treatment.


What are Generational Stereotypes?

Generational stereotypes are widely held, oversimplified ideas or images about the characteristics and behaviors of certain age groups or generations. These beliefs are typically passed down from one generation to the next, or perpetuated through various forms of media and social interactions, with little regard to their basis in reality.

For example, Baby Boomers—those born between 1946 and 1964—are often stereotypically depicted as hardworking, yet inflexible and technologically challenged. Generation X—born between 1965 and 1980—is frequently portrayed as cynical and rebellious. Millennials—those born between 1981 and 1996—are often viewed as entitled and overly sensitive, yet technologically savvy. Lastly, Generation Z—born between 1997 and 2012—is often seen as socially conscious, but also excessively reliant on technology and social media.

While each generation tends to share certain values and perspectives, stereotypes step outside of these unique points of view and often arise out differences between generations.  Just because an individual is from a generation doesn’t mean that their personal values or points of view are the same as everyone else in their generation. People’s behaviors, attitudes, and preferences are influenced by numerous factors beyond their generation—such as cultural background, geographical location, personal experiences, and individual personality traits. Thus, generational stereotypes fail to account for the rich diversity within each generation, leading to misunderstanding, discrimination, and missed opportunities for connection. Rapid shifts in technology changes our work lives and modes of communications, which can widen the generation gap and lead to misunderstandings.

What’s the Cause of Ageism?

Ageism is a multifaceted issue with roots deeply embedded in societal attitudes and structures. It is often propagated by societal norms and biases that privilege certain age groups over others.

Some causes of ageism include:

  • A fear of aging
  • Media portrayal of age-related stereotypes
  • Societal structures and institutions that marginalize certain age groups, such as workplace policies or practices might favor younger employees at the expense of older ones, or vice versa
  • A conflict in values between people from different generations
  • A lack of understanding due to the generation gap, where older and younger individuals don’t have meaningful interactions
  • Negative beliefs formulated based on past abuse by someone of a different age.

Generational healing identifies cyclic forms of abuse that are passed down from older generations to younger generations, so that deep feelings of fear and resentment can lead to negative beliefs about older people because of unhealed trauma. The same is true for older people who have been the victims of elder abuse or a crime from younger people.

Aging Stereotypes, Busted

Aging stereotypes are common and deeply ingrained in many societies, often leading to misconceptions and biases. Let’s debunk a few of these misconceptions using data and facts:


Stereotype: Older people are frail and unproductive.

Fact: Many older adults lead active, productive lives. The WHO reports that the majority of people over 60 are self-sufficient and contribute actively to society. Also, many older adults continue to work, volunteer, and play vital roles in their families and communities. Many cultures value their elders as mentors and advisors that have a new phase of life in service to their communities.


Stereotype: Younger generations are lazy and entitled.

Fact: This stereotype often gets attributed to Millennials and Gen Z. However, studies show that younger generations are highly motivated to make a positive impact. They tend to value meaningful work and are often driven by a desire to make a difference, with many striving to be entrepreneurs.  They also face unique challenges, such as an increasingly competitive job market and higher costs of living, which necessitate hard work and perseverance.


Stereotype: Aging equates to cognitive decline.

Fact: While some cognitive functions, such as speed of processing information, can decline with medical conditions associated with older age, other cognitive abilities – like vocabulary and knowledge – can remain stable or even improve over time. Moreover, not all older individuals will experience significant cognitive decline—many maintain their cognitive health well into advanced age. Studies have shown that taking classes and learning other languages can improve mental sharpness into our 80’s, 90’s, and beyond.


Stereotype: Younger people are addicted to technology and lack real-world social skills.

Fact: While younger adults are indeed more tech-savvy, having grown up in the digital age, this does not necessarily equate to an addiction or a lack of interpersonal skills. Many young people use technology as a tool for learning, communication, and social connection. Moreover, a report by the Global Web Index found that younger generations are using technology to drive social change, highlighting their ability to use these tools responsibly and effectively. Internet Addiction Disorder (IAD) is a formal diagnosis according to the National Institutes of Health in the US and ongoing studies are focused on the problem with adolescents and young adults. However, people of any age can have IAD or other types of addiction.


Stereotype: Older people can’t learn new things, especially technology.

Fact: Learning ability is not determined by age. Older adults can learn new skills, including technology, given the right environment and encouragement. In fact, the Pew Research Center reports that the number of older adults who use technology and the internet has steadily risen over the years.


Challenging Ageist Stereotypes

In order to challenge ageist stereotypes and create a more inclusive society, we need concerted action on various fronts. This work is gaining momentum. A systematic review by Pillemer and colleagues, for example, found that interventions to combat ageist stereotypes and prejudice are often effective (Weir, 2023). The most effective interventions combine education of the elderly and increased intergenerational interaction, though there are five main fronts on which to combat age discrimination and negative stereotypes:


Education: Educating the public about the reality of aging and the diversity of experiences in different age groups can help to counter stereotypes. Schools and media can play a key role in presenting accurate, balanced, and diverse images of people of all ages.

Intergenerational interaction: Encouraging more interaction between different age groups can foster understanding and break down stereotypes. This can happen informally in families and communities, as well as in formal settings like schools and workplaces through mentorship or buddy programs.

Policy and legislation: Governments and organizations need to ensure their policies and laws are age-inclusive. This can involve measures to prevent age discrimination, promote equal opportunities for all age groups, and ensure access to services and resources for people of all ages.

Media representation: Media plays a powerful role in shaping perceptions. More accurate, positive, and diverse representation of different age groups in the media can help to challenge stereotypes.

Individual action: Each of us has a part to play in challenging ageist stereotypes. This can involve becoming aware of our own biases, treating people of all ages with respect and dignity, and standing up against age discrimination when we see it.


What’s the Difference between Generational Stereotypes and Generational Shifts in Values?

Generational stereotypes and generational shifts in values are two distinct concepts, though they can often be confused due to their focus on age groups.

Generational stereotypes refer to broad, often oversimplified generalizations about a particular generation’s characteristics, attitudes, or behaviors. These stereotypes can be negative or positive but are usually based on biases rather than factual evidence. They often fail to account for the significant variation within a generation and can lead to discrimination or misunderstanding.

Take climate change, for example. A prevailing stereotype is that the concern around climate change is primarily found among the younger generations; yet, while younger folks’ climate activism tends to be more visible in the media, Bobby Duffy, director of the Policy Institute at King’s College London, says there has actually been growing concern across all generations.

On the other hand, generational shifts in values pertain to the observable changes in attitudes, beliefs, and priorities that occur across different generations. These shifts can be attributed to various factors, such as changes in societal norms, technological advancements, and major historical events that shape a generation’s collective experiences. Unlike stereotypes, these shifts are often based on empirical evidence and can provide valuable insights into how societies evolve over time.

For example, research suggests a generational shift toward more progressive views on social issues among younger generations. This is not a stereotype; it is an observation based on collected data. However, it’s essential to note that while these trends might be statistically significant, they do not hold true for every individual within a generation.

In essence, while generational stereotypes can contribute to harmful bias and misunderstanding, recognizing generational shifts in values can help us understand broader societal changes and the diverse perspectives that exist across different age groups.


Pew Research Center Updates Research Policy

Recently, the Pew Research Center, a well-respected source for societal trends and demographic research, announced changes in its approach towards generational analysis. This shift is aimed at providing more accurate, nuanced reporting that reduces the risk of oversimplifying complex realities and reinforcing harmful stereotypes.

The Pew Research Center stated that it would only conduct generational analysis when historical data allows for comparison of generations at similar stages of life. Moreover, it intends to control for other factors beyond age when making generational comparisons. While the center recognizes the value in studying age-based differences, it is moving away from using standard generational labels, which often don’t adequately capture the lived experiences of individuals within those age brackets.

This decision came after numerous criticisms from social scientists, researchers, and the public, who argued that the generational categories can lead to inaccurate generalizations. People’s experiences vary significantly within generational groups like Millennials or Gen Z, and pigeon-holing individuals into these categories often overlooks this diversity.

This shift by Pew Research Center underlines the importance of critically examining and challenging generational stereotypes. It reminds us that while generational analysis can provide useful insights, we must be wary of reducing individuals’ complex experiences to simple generational labels. It’s a crucial step towards fostering a more inclusive, understanding society that values and respects individuals across the age spectrum.


What are Generational Stereotypes in the Workplace?

Generational stereotypes in the workplace refer to generalized assumptions about employees based on their generation. Such stereotypes can lead to miscommunication, conflict, and age discrimination, hindering collaboration and productivity.

Common generational stereotypes in the workplace include:

Baby Boomers (born 1946-1964): Often stereotyped as resistant to change and not tech-savvy. However, many boomers are adaptable and have embraced technological advancements in their personal and professional lives.

Generation X (born 1965-1980): Often seen as cynical or disengaged, though they are frequently the bridge between senior management and younger employees, contributing significantly to team dynamics and leadership.

Millennials (born 1981-1996): Often labeled as entitled or lazy, when in fact many are highly motivated, innovative, and driven by meaningful work.

Generation Z (born 1997-2012): Sometimes assumed to be overly reliant on technology and lacking in interpersonal skills, despite many demonstrating strong adaptability and a desire to make a positive social impact.


How does Ageism Cause Harm in the Workplace?

Ageism in the workplace can lead to a range of negative outcomes, not just for the individuals who face discrimination, but also for the organizations themselves. These stereotypes, though largely inaccurate, can influence management decisions, team dynamics, and opportunities for career progression. Here are a few examples:

  1. Limiting Opportunities: Ageism can limit opportunities for both older and younger workers. Older workers may be passed over for promotions or training opportunities based on stereotypes about their abilities or willingness to learn new skills. Younger workers may face barriers in securing jobs or advancing their careers due to assumptions about their experience or maturity.
  2. Reduced Job Satisfaction: Experiencing ageism can lead to lower job satisfaction, which can impact productivity and overall work performance. This dissatisfaction can also increase turnover rates, adding to recruitment and training costs.
  3. Increased Workplace Tension: Ageist stereotypes can lead to misunderstandings and conflict among team members of different age groups. This can create a hostile work environment and hinder teamwork and collaboration.
  4. Hampered Innovation: Age diversity brings a variety of experiences, skills, and perspectives that can foster creativity and innovation. By discriminating based on age, companies may miss out on these benefits.
  5. Legal Consequences: Ageism in the workplace is illegal in many jurisdictions. Companies that engage in or fail to address age discrimination can face lawsuits, fines, and damage to their reputation.

To combat ageism, companies should foster an inclusive culture that values and respects workers of all ages. This can involve providing diversity and inclusion training, implementing fair recruitment and promotion practices, and encouraging intergenerational collaboration and mentorship.


What is Ageism Against Older People?

Ageism is a significant challenge for older people, with detrimental effects that extend beyond mere inconvenience or annoyance. It can severely impact the health, well-being, and quality of life of older individuals.

Older adults often encounter ageism in various forms. They might face discrimination in the workplace, where their experience and capabilities are overlooked in favor of younger employees. Their health concerns may be dismissed or trivialized, often with the unfounded rationale that health problems are just an inevitable part of aging. Ageism can also manifest in social settings where older adults might be excluded from activities or marginalized in conversations.

Moreover, the stereotype of older adults being frail or incompetent can lead to ‘benevolent’ ageism, where they are over-protected or their decisions are not respected, leading to a loss of autonomy. These biases can limit opportunities, contribute to social isolation, and negatively affect mental health.


What is Ageism Against Younger People?

While ageism is often associated with discrimination against older people, it can also affect younger individuals profoundly. This form of ageism—sometimes referred to as ‘adultism’ or ‘jeunism’—can manifest in various ways and have significant impacts on younger people’s personal and professional lives.

In the workplace, younger employees may be overlooked for promotions or leadership roles due to assumptions about their lack of experience or maturity. They may also face patronizing attitudes or dismissive treatment, which can lead to feelings of marginalization and can impact their self-esteem and professional growth.

In broader societal contexts, young people often face stereotypes that paint them as reckless, irresponsible, or excessively dependent on technology. These stereotypes can lead to their perspectives being undervalued or ignored in discussions about social, political, or environmental issues that directly affect them.

Ageism against younger people can also manifest in policies or laws that limit their rights or access to services. For instance, certain policies might restrict young people’s access to health services, or voting laws might disproportionately affect younger citizens.


What is Elder Abuse?

Elder abuse is a serious, pervasive problem that includes physical, emotional, or sexual harm inflicted upon an older adult. It can also involve financial exploitation and neglect, whether intentional or due to ignorance or negligence.

Physical abuse is often the most noticeable form of elder abuse and can include hitting, pushing, or any form of bodily harm. Emotional abuse may encompass yelling, humiliation, or isolating the individual from friends and family. Sexual abuse involves any non-consensual sexual contact.

Financial exploitation refers to unauthorized or illegal use of an older person’s resources for another’s benefit. It may include stealing money or belongings, forging signatures, or coercing an older person into signing documents.

Neglect, the most common type of elder abuse, happens when a caregiver does not meet the elder’s basic needs. This could involve not providing adequate food, shelter, medical care, or assistance with daily activities.

Elder abuse can have severe physical and psychological effects, including increased risk for disease, depression, anxiety, and even premature death.

It’s essential for everyone to recognize the signs of elder abuse and report it to the relevant authorities. Protecting older adults from abuse is a collective responsibility that requires increased awareness, effective legislation, and the creation of supportive environments that respect older people’s rights and dignity.


What is Child Abuse?

Child abuse refers to the physical, sexual, emotional harm, or neglect of a child. It is an egregious violation of a child’s rights and a severe societal problem that can have lasting, devastating effects on a child’s physical and psychological well-being.

Physical abuse involves the infliction of physical injury upon a child, such as hitting, shaking, or burning. Emotional abuse encompasses actions that harm a child’s mental health or social development—this could include constant criticism, humiliation, or the denial of love and affection.

Sexual abuse includes any sexual activity with a child, such as fondling, rape, and exploitation through prostitution or production of pornographic materials.

Neglect is another form of child abuse where a parent or caregiver fails to provide the necessary care for a child to thrive, including adequate food, clothing, shelter, medical care, or supervision.

Child abuse can lead to serious short-term and long-term consequences, including physical injuries, developmental delays, mental health issues, and difficulties in school and relationships.

Preventing child abuse requires a comprehensive approach, including strengthening family capacities, improving children’s access to health, social services, and education, implementing effective laws and policies that protect children, and promoting societal norms and values that nurture respect and care for children. Recognizing the signs of child abuse and taking appropriate action is critical in ensuring the safety and well-being of children.


Final Thoughts

Ageism and generational stereotypes are pervasive issues that shape perceptions, influence behaviors, and impact various areas of our lives, including workplaces and intergenerational relations. These biases can result in harm, including reduced opportunities, decreased job satisfaction, and increased workplace tension.

Challenging and debunking these stereotypes requires consistent efforts from individuals, communities, and institutions. While generational labels and analysis can provide useful insights, they can also lead to oversimplification and reinforcement of harmful stereotypes. As seen with the shift in perspective by the Pew Research Center, it’s essential to recognize and respect the diverse experiences and contributions of individuals across the age spectrum.

As a society, we must strive to create an environment where every individual, regardless of age, is valued and respected.


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World Health Organization (WHO). (2021). Ageing: Ageism. https://www.who.int/news-room/questions-and-answers/item/ageing-ageism

Retired Teachers of Ontario (RTOERO). (n.d.). What is ageism?


Weir, Kirsten. (2023). Ageism is one of the last socially acceptable prejudices. Psychologists are working to change that. Monitor on Psychology, 54(2), 36


Ferguson, Z.,Heath, N. & Leong, Lisa. (2023). Generational stereotypes can do harm in the workplace — here’s how to avoid them. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2023-06-13/generational-stereotypes-boomer-gen-x-millennial-gen-z-workplace/102449184

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Prakash, P. (2023). Pew Research Center is tired of blaming Gen Z and millennials for everything—it’s retiring the whole concept of generational framing. https://fortune.com/2023/06/17/pew-research-gen-z-millennials-generational-framing/amp/

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